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Physico-chemistry of planar nano-materials

Informacje ogólne

Kod przedmiotu: 1100-4INZ`PCPNM Kod Erasmus / ISCED: (brak danych) / (brak danych)
Nazwa przedmiotu: Physico-chemistry of planar nano-materials
Jednostka: Wydział Fizyki
Grupy: Fizyka, II stopień; przedmioty do wyboru
Fizyka; przedmioty prowadzone w języku angielskim
Inżynieria nanostruktur, II stopień; przedmioty do wyboru (Lista 1)
Physics (Studies in English), 2nd cycle; courses from list "Topics in Contemporary Physics"
Physics (Studies in English); 2nd cycle
Punkty ECTS i inne: 3.00
Język prowadzenia: angielski
Założenia (opisowo):

(tylko po angielsku) The enormous success of graphene has sparked the research and development of atomically thin, 2D materials from a broad range of other layered compounds.

Examples of such systems include atomic layers of nitrides (e.g., hexagonal boron nitride), dichalcogenides (e.g., molybdenum disulfide, tungsten diselenide), and oxides (e.g., vanadium pentoxide, molybdenum oxide), 2D Silicene and Germanene, pnictides, spin-orbit coupled sulphides and selenides, to MXcenes. In many ways, these new generations of atomically thin materials complement graphene, however, their unprecedented electronic, optical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, thermal, sensing, and other diverse properties open new possibilities of applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectonics, sensors and detectors, nanocomposites, energy and gas storage. They also reveal interesting physics of materials, such as topological and quantum spin-Hall phases.


Although this is a relatively new field, it is progressing rapidly and it is obvious now that these materials will have a huge impact on future materials research. Therefore, and various challenges related to the control in scalable growth and synthesis, predictable structure-property correlations, the role of defects, disorder, contacts, substrates, dopants, adsorbates and a host of other parameters are being urgently addressed. Additional excitement comes from the possibility of engineering novel van der Waals Solids by stacking different layers of the materials mentioned above.


The aim of the lecture is to introduce students into this fascinating world of 2D atomically thick materials and make them familiar with the most important issues of physio-chemistry of these materials. The electronic structure, novel synthesis approaches, state-of-the-art characterization methods, unusual optoelectronic properties, doping, catalysis, potential applications, as well as modeling techniques and theories providing quantitative understanding of 2D systems will be addressed. To establish the grounds, the lecture will also provide foundations of the knowledge accumulated in graphene research.


Skrócony opis: (tylko po angielsku)

During the course, the following topics will be discussed:

1) A survey of two-dimensional atomically thick materials

2) Electronic properties of graphene based structures

3) Growth techniques and characterization methods of graphene

4) General concepts of quantum transport

5) Klein tunneling and ballistic transport in graphene

6) Ballistic transport in graphene in graphene nanoribbons

7) Quantum transport in disordered graphene-based materials

8) Overwiew of the most promising graphene applications

9) Single atom thick honeycomb layered 2D-materials beyond graphene and their nanoribbons

10) Properties of monolayer 2D inorganic materials (h-BN and TMDCs)

11) TMDCs - applications

12) Defects engineering of 2D monoatomic-layer materials and their functionalization

13) From two-dimensional materials to their vertical and lateral heterostructures (Van der Waals crystals)

14) Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials

15) Miles stones and perspectives

Pełny opis: (tylko po angielsku)

The material of the course will be divided into 15 lectures, each for two lecturing hours (90 minutes). The topics of the lectures and their contain are given below.

1. An Atlas of two-dimensional atomically thick materials

The family of 2D materials encompasses a wide selection of compositions including almost all the elements of the periodic table. This derives into a rich variety of electronic properties including metals, semimetals, insulators and semiconductors with direct and indirect band gaps ranging from ultraviolet to infrared throughout the visible range. We categorize the 2D materials according to their structure, composition and electronic properties. In this review we distinguish atomically thin materials (graphene, silicene, germanene, and their saturated forms; hexagonal boron nitride; silicon carbide), rare earth, semimetals, transition metal chalcogenides and halides, and finally synthetic organic 2D materials, exemplified by 2D covalent organic frameworks. We will also discuss prerequisites for having 2D atomically thick systems.

2. Electronic properties of carbon-based nanostructures

Electronic structure of graphene (tight-binding and ab initio), Effective description of dispersion close to the Dirac point, phase ambiguity and Berry phase, trigonal warping corrections, electronic properties of few-layer graphene, electronic properties of graphene nanoribbons, electronic properties of carbon nanotubes

2. Growth techniques and characterization methods of graphene

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy, surface topography of Graphene, Tunneliing Spectroscopy of Graphene, measuring small Graphene devices with Scanning Probes; Inelastic scattering of light – Raman Scattering, a brief overview of Inelastic Scattering of Light, the G-Band mode, the G’-Band (or 2D) Mode, the disorder-induced D-Band Mode

CARRIER TRANSPORT IN GRAPHENE SYSTEMS

4. General concepts of quantum transport: relevant time and length scales, coherent vs. Sequential transport, Landauer-Büttiker theory, Boltzman semiclassical transport, scalling theory of localization, quantum transport beyond the fully coherent or decoherent limits.

5. Klein tunneling and ballistic transport in graphene and related materials: the Klein tunneling mechanism, as an example of the Klein tunneling phenomenon one discusses Klein tunneling through monolayer graphene with a single (impurity) potential

6. Ballistic transport in graphene, graphene nanoribbons, and carbon nanotubes: ballistic motion and conductance quantization, mode decomposition in real space, Fabry-Perot conductance oscillations , ballistic motion through a graphene constriction: the 2D limit and the minimum conductivity.

7. Quantum transport in disordered graphene-based materials: elastic mean free path, temperature dependence of the mean free path, quantum interference effects and localization phenomena in disordered graphene-based materials, edge disorder and transport gaps in graphene nanoribbons, experimental and theoretical overview of transport in disordered graphene, Boltzman transport in two-dimensional graphene, graphene with monovacancies, polycrystalline and amorphous graphene – electronic and transport properties properties

8. Overview of the most promising graphene applications

In this lecture we present the most promising graphene applications in information and communication technologies, reflecting current activities.

We will discuss the following issues: (i) carbon nanotube based electronics vs. graphene based electronics, (ii) flexible electronics, (iii) high-frequency electronics, (iv) optoelectonics-photonics-plasmonics, (v) digital logic gates, (vi) digital nonvolatile graphene memories (vii) graphene nanoresonators (viii) spintronics

9. Single atom thick honeycomb layered 2D-materials beyond graphene and their nanoribbons

Group IV (Si, Ge, Sn) 2D-Nanomaterials, pristine (silicene, germane or germanene) and covered with H (e.g. GeH = germanane), and group V sytems (P, As, Sb, Bi, SbAs, BiSb) will be introduced. Developing chemistries of 2D-dimensional layered materials (mechanical exfoliation, intercalation, topochemical deintercalation, electrochemical exfoliation, restacking). The structural and electronic structure of these materials will be discussed for free standing and on substrate layers. In particular, various substrates for obtaining the silicene: Ag(110), Ag(111), Au(110), Ir(111), ZrB2-covered Si(111), comparison of the geometric and electronic structure of the free standing silicene and silicene on Ag(111) with various superstructures

10. Properties of monolayer 2D inorganic materials (h-BN and TMDCs)

Other 2D materials, such as h-BN and TMDCs (transition metal dichalcogenides) have truly two-dimensional structures but very different physical properties. These materials can be insulators or metals depending on their composition and thermodynamic conditions. TMDCs materials have layered structure of X-M-X, in which the transition metal atom (M) id sandwiched between two layers of chalcogen atoms X with stoichiometry MX2. The interlayers are weakly bound by Van der Waals forces, facilitating the fabrication of different layered materials by employing micromechanical cleavage techniques used for the production of graphene layers. The methods for obtaining various TMDCs and h-BN will be discussed. The electronic structure of these systems will be also addressed.

11. TMDC (transition metal dichalcogenides) 2D materials – applications

We will discuss top gated FETs (field effect transistors) based on TMDCs structures and their I(V) characteristics. Also we pay attention to the biosensors based on MoS2 FETs, which provide extremely high sensitivity, easy fabrication and rapid, inexpensive, label-free detection. We will also show how the judicious combination of 2D crystals may lead to new device/circuit topologies with superior performance. An advanced 2D hybrid material based circuit scheme was first proposed in 2013, which combined 2D layers such as MoS2, WSe2, and graphene. It will be demonstrated how by effectively combining various 2D material based components (both laterally and vertically) including 2D sensors, 2D photovoltaic devices, 2D memories, and 2D logic/analog circuits, a completely new generation of integrated circuits could be envisioned.

12. Defects engineering of 2D monoatomic-layer materials and their functionalization

The properties and behavior of 2D atomically thick materials can be modified by introducing defects, namely defect engineering. In this lecture, we review a group of common two-dimensional crystals, including graphene, graphyne, graphdiyne, graphnyne, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride monolayers and MoS2 monolayers, focusing on the effect of the defect engineering on these two-dimensional monolayer materials. Defect engineering leads to the discovery of potentially exotic properties that make the field of two-dimensional crystals fertile for future investigations and emerging technological applications with precisely tailored properties.

13. From two-dimensional materials to their (Van der Waals) heterostructures

Stacking the 2D materials on top of each other in a controlled fashion can create heterostructures with tailored properties that offers another promising approach to design and fabricate novel electronic devices. In this lecture, we attempt to review this rapidly developing field of hybrid materials. We summarize the fabrication methods for the layer-by-layer growth of various vertical heterostructures and their electronic properties. We will consider vertically and laterally stacked heterostructures.

Among vertical heterostructures we will consider:

o graphene and h-BN heterostructures (Graphene/BN and BN/Graphene) paying particular attention to the problem of electronic gap opening.

o Heterostructures of various TMDCs (transition metal dichalcogenides) , e.g., WS2/MoS2

o heterostructures of TDMS with Graphene and BN, eg. Graphene/WS2; Graphene/MoS2; Graphene/WS2/Graphene/h-BN

14. Computational Design of Functional Layered Materials

New or modified materials with desired functionalities play an essential role in the development of clean-energy technologies, such as solar cells, batteries, and catalysts to generate hydrogen fuel by water-splitting. Because there are so many possible materials, it is impossible to grow and test them all in the laboratory. Computational design of materials with desired properties, based on first-principles theory and modeling, is a practical alternative. The lecture will describe applied tools and present some results of computer aided design of new 2D materials.

15. Summary of the lecture and outline of possible future developments

The main miles stones of the physico-chemistry of the 2D layered materials will be summarized. Further, the new perspectives of the novel 2d layered structures, like eg., metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice will be indicated.

Literatura: (tylko po angielsku)

Intoduction to Graphene-Based Nanomaterials, From Electronic Structure to Quantum Transport , L. E. F. Foa Torres, S. Roche, and J-Ch. Charlier,

Cambridge University Press, (2014).

Graphene Nanoelectronics – Metrology, Synthesis, properties and Applications, Series: NanoScience and Technology, Ed. Hassan Raza, Springer (2012).

Physics of Graphene, Series: NanoScience and Technology, Eds., Hideo Aoki, Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Springer (2014).

Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and their Composites, Series: Springer Series in materials Science, Vol 188, Eds., Konstantinos Tserpes, Nuno Silvestre, Springer (2014).

H. Oughaddou, H. Enriquez, M. R. Tchalala, H. Yildirim, A. J. Mayne , A. Bendounan, G. Dujardin, M. A. Ali, A. Kara, “Silicene, a promising new 2D material”, Progress in Surface Science 90, 46-83 (2015).

Kristie J. Koski and Yi Cui, “ The New Skinny in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials”, ACSNANO, doi:10.1021/nn4022422

Tianchao Niu and Ang Li, “From two-dimensional materials to heterostructures”, Progress in Surface Science 90, 21-45 (2015).

Shen-Yi Xie, Xian-Bin Li, Wei Quan Tian, Nian-Ke Chen, Yeliang Wang, Shengbai Zhang, and Hong-Bo Sun, “A novel two-dimensional MgB6 crystal: metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 1093-1098 (2015).

Zajęcia w cyklu "Semestr zimowy 2021/22" (w trakcie)

Okres: 2021-10-01 - 2022-02-20
Wybrany podział planu:


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Typ zajęć: Wykład, 30 godzin więcej informacji
Koordynatorzy: Jacek Majewski
Prowadzący grup: Jacek Majewski
Lista studentów: (nie masz dostępu)
Zaliczenie: Egzamin
Opisy przedmiotów w USOS i USOSweb są chronione prawem autorskim.
Właścicielem praw autorskich jest Uniwersytet Warszawski.